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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

2013年排名:12

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“The consumer will take a little more time to come back which is why we’re focusing on a game plan we know that works, focusing on affordability and premium [drinks] in metro areas,” he said, adding that he is confident that the company can continue to gain share in the country and is set up for when consumer spending picks up again.
《风流医生俏护士》首播时,鹰眼和诱捕者这两个角色原本同等重要,也正是在这样的条件下,韦恩·罗杰斯才同意扮演诱捕者约翰。然而,当艾伦·艾尔达开始对这个角色进行改动并对整个剧情走向产生更大影响时,鹰眼使诱捕者这一角色黯然失色。
[k?n's?lt]

If you have a question, come to my office. Don't corner me in the bathroom.
‘I Could Not Forget What Happened to Me That Night With Him’
要知道,从来没有人能够为每一种情况做好万全准备。你可能刚刚发现这一点。你的教育经历为你提供了一个工作基础,但成长往往发生在第一线。或许,你鼓励你的团队不仅按最新期限完成工作,而且表现出色。或许,你与客户共事时发现自己比以往更加镇静自若。或许,你突然发现自己能利用以往建立的人脉,开始在组织里“呼风唤雨”。在学会这些技能之前,你只能学习说“Yes”。面对机会时,感到忐忑不安是很自然的事情,但千万不要让这种情绪扼杀你的成长。

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

白领妈妈移居乡村 “离线奋斗”成热词

If we ask "What salary are you looking for?" say you're flexible, or say it depends on the responsibilities of the job. Try not to name a salary unless we really push you, because that gives us a leg up in the negotiating.
2011年诺贝尔和平奖被授予利比利亚总统埃伦.约翰逊.瑟利夫,利比利亚和平活动人士蕾曼.格鲍伊和也门妇女权利倡导者塔瓦库尔.卡门。
To tackle the problems, the report suggests that e-commerce laws should be developed as soon as possible. It also calls for the establishment of an online credit system to strengthen the discipline of the e-commerce industry.

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

His first coding effort resulted in an app that played audio snippets from speeches by his idol, Steve Jobs, whose unauthorized biography he'd recently devoured. 'It was rejected by Apple for every reason,' D'Aloisio says now, laughing. 'Copyrighted audio, poor functionality, too simple.' Another early design allowed users to touch a picture of wood, producing a knocking sound. A third transformed a smartphone screen into a treadmill for your fingers. That one earned about $120 in sales on its first day.
“D型人格”最先由荷兰蒂尔堡大学的心理学家Johan Denollet提出。他还设计了一个测试,帮助人们认识自己是否具有D型人格特征。
仪征博物馆的工作人员告诉每日邮报电子报,这件青铜器是在西汉(公元前206年–公元8年)贵族墓中发现的。

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • States are falling all over themselves to be chosen as the site for Tesla’s proposed $5 billion Gigafactoryto produce lithium ion batteries. California is competing with Nevada, Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas, and the bidding for the factory, which could employ up to 6,500 people, is said to be up to $500 million.
  • 税务机构改革后迎来首个纳税征期 服务更高效
  • And this year, the Nobel Prize has defied the convention of celebrating big by presenting the biggest prizes to discoveries on the smallest scales.
  • 卫浴企业如何突破同质化“枷锁”
  • 2019年公租房有效供应将加大
  • The report found that students majoring in art, agriculture and engineering were more willing to start businesses, while those majoring in history and science showed relatively low interest.
    8、苹果发布会

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 年轻人的“住房梦”:买房似乎愈来愈遥远了, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

Click to zoom

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

集成定制改写未来家居

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

曝装修材料采购有回扣 抽成多暗地现金结算

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • 奥巴马则在位于芝加哥的家里从电视上看到了投票的结果。资深选举战略家大卫-艾索洛通过邮件表示他感到“非常开心”。
    Perhaps in response, at the start of 2017, China's media regulator quietly began including service fees charged by online ticketing companies when reporting box-office figures.
  • 现在似乎可以放心地预言,2017年余下时间会出现更多噪音、甚少进展,而这将继续对贸易和英国经济造成破坏。
    单词pressure 联想记忆:
    《大唐荣耀》
    But there remains a mass of old master paintings in dealers’ stocks — and in collectors’ minds — whose asking prices still hark back to the age of Tommy Cooper. Unfortunately, in today’s market, and at those prices, many of these paintings will be as sellable as that Stradivarius canvas with the hole in it.
    I formerly had an Android device (even though I have had a MacBook since 2009 – weird, I know). After switching this summer, I quickly realized the power of iPhone “Reminders.” Each time a reminder is due, your iPhone buzzes and displays a pop-up. You can snooze it or mark as completed. In addition, you can set up recurring reminders, which are perfect for remembering to mail estimated quarterly tax payments, renewing subscriptions, running payroll and other things you tend to forget.

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 2015到2024年LED照明系统销售额将达2160亿美元
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 外资粉末涂料制造商降低在华投资力度

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

但煽动家利用此类抱怨的做法威胁到了民主。
Always wanted to be an author but not sure where to start? Have you considered self-publishing? Thanks to Amazon, you can. Kindle Direct Publishing allows you to get the word out via e-books, CreateSpacehelps you develop a print edition and ACX is the audio publishing division. I’ve used all three to develop my book.
A lot of people study better with others. If that's you, form a study group in your class or join one that's already organized.
订婚买钻石真是太没新意了
年龄:45岁
Switzerland, Sweden and the UK again occupied the top three slots in the ranking. Fifteen of the top 25 economies in the GII come from Europe.
It is the first time in the rankings’ 19-year history that two schools have between them held the top two spots in both categories.

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • According to China's business magazine New Fortune's 2018 Chinese wealthy list, the top 10 tycoons' total wealth reached 1.72 trillion yuan, accounting for 18% of the combined wealth of the list's total 500, and the top 10's personal wealth has surpassed 100 billion yuan for the first time.
  • 年底红木家具价格大“跳水” 商家纷纷打起价格战
  • For Maddie Ziegler, from Pennsylvania, life couldn't be more different.
    2010年中国的房价将达到顶点?
  • 林氏木业年后首家体验馆曝光 杭州将成O2O分水岭
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • 项目总成本:18.15万美元,在费城或旧金山学习
    "We are quite interested in looking at China's efforts and experience in combating corruption. It's a problem we are faced with in South Africa, and one we are tackling with a lot of vigor.Recently, the South African government introduced new measures to combat corruption. This is interesting, because it was immediately after a visit by our minister for public services, who met with the minister here who is responsible for anti-corruption measures.So this is one of the examples of the usefulness of this interaction between our leadership and the leadership of the People's Republic of China."
  • 然而,今年该项目仅排在第8位。
    The state-sponsored purchasing managers' index fell from 50.8 in October to 50.3 in November, the lowest reading since March. Any level above 50 indicates expansion.
  • ['t?]
    "If it (transforming the economic development mode) only results in empty talk instead of being implemented, then economic development cannot be promoted in a sound and rapid way, and may even not be sustained." LI YIZHONG, member of the CPPCC National Committee and former minister of industry and information technology
  • 包括圣诞购物季在内,第四季度的电脑出货量共计7190万台。IDC方面表示,这是自IDC公司开始追踪该数据以来最大的降幅。
    comfort
    *Guest Actor in a Comedy Series: Peter Scolari, “Girls”
  • But at the end of a madcap Golden Globes (Ms. Fey toasted it as 'the beautiful mess we hoped it would be'), the major honors soberly ended up with the favorites. David O. Russell's con-artist caper 'American Hustle' led with three awards, including best film comedy. And despite missing out in the other six categories it was nominated in, the unflinching historical drama '12 Years a Slave' concluded the night as best film drama.
    Meanwhile, producer prices were deflating at a rate of -5.9 per cent, a six-year low, for a third straight month.
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 家居建材业开始打“文化”牌 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

北京两共有产权房项目完成申购审核

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

陶瓷行业排放提标在即 多家企业称“迷茫”

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

深圳家居品牌重视创意:增强体验感可异地提货

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

涂料市场观察:“大数据时代”的企业竞争格局

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • 榜单的前20名中,除了排名第四的复旦大学和第六名的北京大学这两所综合类高校之外,其余席位多被财经类和理工类高校占据。
  • 我是一个封闭的人
  • 深圳再现摇号购房 新房限价下的市场预期博弈

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • 你有翻白眼的习惯吗?握手时有气无力?不爱进行眼神交流?这些可谓是职业杀手。人们必须意识到行动大于言语,大部分的沟通是通过非语言暗示完成的。你的一些非语言习惯可能会被认为是不礼貌的,不专业的—而这些最终会严重影响你的职业发展。
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • v. 借,供应货款,
    1940年5月,德国进军法国,将40万英法联军围困在敦刻尔克的海滩上。在英国和法国军队的地空掩护下,盟军利用所有能用上的军用和民用船只,有条不紊地进行了撤退。这个英勇行动的最后,有33万名来自法国、英国、比利时和荷兰士兵得以安全撤退。
    Of the other teams, Germany have a fantastic team, with some great options all over the pitch. The Italians can never be discounted at tournaments, whilst Portugal, with Ronaldo in the team will be dangerous, and Belgium, with such an array of talent will be amongst everyone's list of dark horses.
  • Here are some of the trends that emerge from this year’s BrandZ rankings:

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • Tesla has an order backlog of $226 million. At the production run rate of 1000 cars a week expected at the end of 2014, that translates to a 30-week backlog.
  • 二孩政策将对中国家居行业带来三大影响
  • 不过邱佩特并不只是一只宠物猫,它只参与了两个广告的拍摄就在一年里独自挣得了230多万英镑,其中一个是为日本美容产品植村秀拍摄的,另一个则是为德国汽车公司沃克斯豪尔拍摄的。

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 高安瓷砖攻入山东福建产区 未来环保政策会更严
  • Household substance abuse
  • 两部门:今年退休人员基本养老金涨5%左右
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

盲目扩张致企业短命 门企要“勤俭持家”

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 成都房租涨幅高达30.98%?核查:1-7月增长3.9%
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • (受权发布)中共中央 国务院 印发《乡村振兴战略规划(2018-2022年)》(4)
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

2013年排名:12

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

recept接受+ive表形容词→善于接受的
如果你是一个工薪阶层的白人,担心这个充满国际性的新世界会摧毁或贬抑你所珍视的身份认同,那么你并没有一种在文化上能够被接受的方式,去阐明自己内心感受到的危机。
8. Victoria and Abdul
Gary Oldman's first film as director in 20 years, and only his second ever, is a biopic of the pioneering 19th-century photographer Eadweard Muybridge, focusing on the affair between his wife, Flora, and Harry Larkyns, the theatre critic he kills. No casting confirmed, but Oldman had been chasing Ralph Fiennes and Benedict Cumberbatch. The man himself will play Muybridge's prosecutor.
When things do go wrong, Mr Cook takes swift and merciless action. In late 2012, after the premature launch of Apple’s flawed Maps app, he dismissed Scott Forstall, who led the creation of iOS and was a close ally of Jobs, and John Browett, the former Dixons chief who had led Apple retail for less than a year. The actions sent a message that Mr Cook will not tolerate underperformance or internal politics.
Google
sur下面+rog要求…要求做下去…代理+ate表名词,“人或地位”→代理人,代替品
单词effective 联想记忆:
密码管理应用设计商Splashdata发布了一份“25个最常见密码” 榜单。
10月中国出口同比下降6.9%,较上月3.7%的降幅有所恶化。疲弱的全球需求和中国成本上涨导致过去10年期间从中国大量流向世界的廉价商品减少。

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

宁波前10月灯具、照明装置及零件出口货值高达227.6亿

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • v. 拥抱,包含,包围,接受,信奉
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • 尽管从严格意义上来说,英国《金融时报》在线MBA排行榜和全日制MBA排行榜没有可比性,因为二者的评判标准略有不同,但我们饶有兴致地发现,IE商学院和华威商学院等6所院校都同时登上了两个排行榜。
  • 中指院:社区增值服务机构存万亿市场
  • It came as no surprise that the likes of Emily Ratajkowski, Adriana Lima, Lily Donaldson and Petra Nemcova turned out to be the red carpet rulers on day one of the 70th Cannes Film Festival.
  • “芯片教父”张汝京投身LED行业 总投资额达35亿元
  • 《性别之战》

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 百余“调控令” 为何难抑楼市“火焰山”?
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • The amulet has been dated to 3,200 years ago and bears the name of Pharaoh Thutmose III, a prominent figure from the Eighteenth Dynasty who reigned from 1479 BCE to 1425 BCE.
  • 2013 Rank: 12

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

重庆两江新区:让不动产登记“跑”起来

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