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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

就毕业3年后的学员薪资而言,德国的管理硕士课程排名居前,有3所商学院进入前4名。奥托贝森管理研究院(WHU Beisheim)的毕业生享有薪酬最高的名声,平均薪资为9.8123万美元。

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The letter mysteriously arrived at the California University of Pennsylvania, in the north-eastern state of Pennsylvania, 10 days ago. Written to Mr Moore, the two-page letter was postmarked 20 February 1958 and signed "love forever Vonnie".
Whedon had always loved the seemingly separate ideas of sci-fi and westerns, and through The Killer Angels, he saw a way to combine them. "I wanted to play with that classic notion of the frontier," he said. "Not the people who made history, but the people history stepped on—the people for whom every act is the creation of civilization." And Whedon decided to set the frontier on a spaceship: a ship named Serenity.
"A 12-year-old boy doesn't want to start spending 100,000 euros."

007系列电影主题曲第四名:汤姆·琼斯--《霹雳弹》
可以想象,2016年油价将从当前不到40美元的水平上反弹。沙特或许会尝试减产,伊拉克可能会爆发更多冲突,恐怖主义分子可能会攻击一些重要目标,比如沙特拉斯坦努拉和阿巴奇克的石油终端。一切皆有可能,有些事情发生的可能性更大一些。但问题在于,油价反弹的幅度将有多大?
Good health, good luck and much happiness throughout the year.

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

房企扎堆改名 “去地产化”信号越来越明

Gender diversity is increasing among graduates working in the financial industry, according to data collected for the 2017 edition of the Financial Times ranking of masters in finance programmes.
The letter mysteriously arrived at the California University of Pennsylvania, in the north-eastern state of Pennsylvania, 10 days ago. Written to Mr Moore, the two-page letter was postmarked 20 February 1958 and signed "love forever Vonnie".
他做了几次化妆试验,希望能极大改变卡瑞尔的外貌。“我们实际上在创造一个新人,”科森说。

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

作为本田的高端品牌,讴歌去年共售出167,843辆,同比微增1.5%。而在美国这一备受豪华车品牌青睐的市场上,丰田的高端品牌雷克萨斯销量增幅为13.7%,宝马增幅为9.8%,奥迪增幅为15.2%,梅赛德斯-奔驰增幅为6.5%。
很多人会这么想:“只要我努力工作,我总会被人注意到的。” 但是这通常不对。如果你想升职,那么当一些责任分到你头上,让你大施拳脚,你一定要让你的上级,你上级的上级知道你到底为公司贡献了什么。
007系列电影主题曲第四名:汤姆·琼斯--《霹雳弹》

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • It is said in the report that the three major industries that graduates expected to work for are it/internet/telecommunications/electronics industry, financial industry/ banking/investment/fund/securities/insurance, government/public service/non-profit-making institutions.
  • 北京56家银行暂停首套房贷
  • Single record of the year: "Over You," Miranda Lambert
  • 红木家具行业或将进入下一个黄金十年
  • 《2018年三季度家庭资产指数报告》发布 这些细节你感受到了吗
  • 4、优衣库事件
    But at the end of a madcap Golden Globes (Ms. Fey toasted it as 'the beautiful mess we hoped it would be'), the major honors soberly ended up with the favorites. David O. Russell's con-artist caper 'American Hustle' led with three awards, including best film comedy. And despite missing out in the other six categories it was nominated in, the unflinching historical drama '12 Years a Slave' concluded the night as best film drama.

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 住建部约谈12城将满月:已有9个城市发布新政回应, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

“3·26”调控两年 商住交易降九成、价格降三成

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

京津冀协同发展规划掀投资建设潮 地产等领域受益

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • The next step? Jalava plans to upgrade the finger with an RFID tag and add wireless support. He also wants to add more memory, which seems pointless to us. If he needs more storage, he has nine other fingers he can chop off and replace with flash drives.
    setting
  • The proposed amendment, which is expected to come into force on Jan 1, contains a clause stipulating extended maternity leave and other welfare for couples having children. These are expected to boost the willingness of some couples to have a second child. Many couples have expressed reluctance to have a second child because of the high costs of bringing-up two children and the prejudice they anticipate from employers.
    galaxy
    2018年它们会拿出更多创造力,包括在非现金效益上的创造力。例如,美国银行(Bank of America)刚刚引入了一项新计划,让全球银行业务和市场部门的员工休至多6周的长假。该计划是有条件的:员工必须在该行工作至少10年,每5年可以申请一次长假,最多享受3次。但根据英国《金融时报》看到的一份内部备忘录,首席运营官汤姆蒙塔格(Tom Montag)鼓励符合条件的员工考虑该计划。
    10月份,中国社会消费品零售总额增长放缓。另一方面,尽管上月出口走弱,中国规模以上工业增加值和全国固定资产投资增长仍大致保持平稳。
    年龄:46

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 瓷板幕墙将逐步取代石材幕墙
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 江苏南京、苏州等热点城市房价上涨预期下降

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

该报告调研了156个国家,结果显示,丹麦、挪威、瑞士、荷兰和瑞典是幸福指数最高的前5个国家。而撒哈拉以南非洲的大部分国家——卢旺达,布隆迪,中非共和国,贝宁和多哥等则被该报告评为幸福指数最低的几个国家。中国列第93位。
“阅后即焚”社交网络的兴起
vigilance
无论是过去还是现在,都有一系列通过煽动攥取权力的例子。
实际上,有能力和平回应是它们的长处之一。
No. The much-hyped US electric carmaker once promised to make 400,000 of its new dream machines in 2018. Its latest production targets imply 200,000-300,000. But serious glitches in battery production have meant a slow start, and Tesla’s record is not good. With Tesla yet to show it can wean itself off constant infusions of Wall Street cash, 2018 cold be a make or break year.
Jack Ma and his family's total wealth in IT industry was 195 billion yuan, followed by Tencent Holdings founder Pony Ma, whose wealth increased by 30% year-on-year to 134 billion yuan.

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • 2.这里没有人能够回答你问的任何关于击剑的问题。还是去google一下吧。
  • 中国涂料月度产量增速水平持续下滑
  • 你倾向于隐藏自己的感情吗?
    就业市场面临着挑战。约有500万美国人失业已有六个月之久,技能退化令他们未来更难找到工作的风险也加大。此外,收入增长放缓引发的担忧可能会限制企业招聘。据咨询公司CEB今年10月进行的一项调查显示,约有36%的美国高管预计其公司的职员人数会减少;相比之下,今年夏天这一比例为29%。[qh]
  • 满足棚改货币化补偿市民购房需求
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • Scientists may be working hard at making organs that match the body's capabilities, but why stop there?
    乔布斯在苹果大会上作专题演讲后展示MacBook Air ,2008年,1月15日,旧金山
  • [?d.mini'strein]
    Columbia Pictures克里斯蒂安?贝尔、艾米?亚当斯和布莱德利?库珀在电影《美国骗局》中早在1月份闹片荒的时候,人们不会想到今年会迎来如此多好电影。不仅如此,有几部影片甚至达到了被我们在心目中理想化了的那些老电影的水准。今年有两部电影脱颍而出。纯娱乐片方面,赢家显然是《美国骗局》(American Hustle),这部由大卫?欧?拉塞尔(David O. Russell)执导的影片讲述了上个世纪七十年代的行骗高手和他们的微妙骗术的故事,幽默诙谐,令人捧腹。而从创新角度看,《地心引力》(Gravity)的全新拍摄技术给观众带来了新的观影体验。人们普遍认为《美国骗局》无可挑剔,这部疯狂喜剧片是一部时代佳作。我个人则认为,《地心引力》是今年的最佳影片。
  • 加剧人们焦虑的是,新兴市场的企业债务近年不断积累,从2008年至2014年增加了一倍,近年一直是全球债券市场增长最快的领域之一。
    This slide in the dollar value of exports has entirely been a price effect, driven by lower commodity prices. In volume terms, emerging market exports have continued to rise since 2014, even if volume growth in year-on-year terms has moderated to around 2 per cent, a fraction of the double-digit rates witnessed either side of the global financial crisis, as the second chart shows.
  • 萝丝王在中国长大,在那里学会了计算机编程。大学毕业后,她希望到美国工作。第二年,《中国学生保护法案》(Chinese Students Protection Act)获得通过,萝丝王获得了休斯敦大学的计算机科学硕士学位。2001年9月11日之前,她曾在多家硅谷初创公司(包括成立自己的公司iBizWomen.com)工作。911事件让她产生了创办Binary Group的想法。Binary Group是一家与联邦政府合作的科技咨询公司。过去16年间,这家公司帮助客户节省的资金不计其数——比如美军第20支援司令部(Army 20th Support Command)就在五年时间内共节省了6,000万美元卫星通信带宽开支。
    社交网络公司Facebook 、电子商务巨头亚马逊和玩具公司乐高则是品牌价值增幅最大的企业。
    意大利语piloto“划浆""的变体→飞行员,领航员
  • 这需要领导人具备不同的技能——尤其需要领导人对组织的共同目标具有更清晰的视野。在新的一年,如何领导由机器人和人类组成的“团队”的困境将变得更为紧迫。
    恭贺新禧,万事如意。
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 土巴兔王国彬成为中国40位40岁以下商界精英 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

北京楼市调控目标继续不动摇 拟将个体租金纳入监测监管

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

82家房企营收同比涨6%平均赚5.6亿元

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

酒店业如何搭上“租购并举”东风

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

大家居衍生“跨界合作”地板企业开辟新道路

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • 8.Please aid the Olympic authorities and organisers by demonstrating at all times that you are not a terrorist. Do not perspire, take off your shoes, smile in a weird way while texting someone, or point and shout: "Hey! Look at all those missiles on that roof over there!" In fact, if you're not using your hands for anything, it's probably best if you keep them in the air where everybody can see them.
  • China’s retail sales softened as industrial production and investment held more or less steady in spite of a weaker showing from exports last month.
  • 探索更多赢利点 家居行业频繁上演“跨界”戏码

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

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  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • Amazon, Starbucks and Facebook have seen their brand values shoot up in 2016 compared with 2015. Amazon’s 59 per cent rise in value to $99bn and seventh place ranking, is partly due to its ability to create demand and not just satisfy it, according to Elspeth Cheung, head of BrandZ valuation at Millward Brown. She says Amazon’s one-hour delivery service has put pressure on other retailers to speed up delivery times while the online retailer’s move into logistics poses a threat to courier services UPS, FedEx and DHL.
    随着《喜羊羊与灰太狼》大电影第二部《喜羊羊与灰太狼之虎虎生威》的上映,这部空前火爆的国产动画再度成为众人关注的焦点。你知道怎么用英文介绍《喜羊羊与灰太狼》么?I
    Beijing is banning Chinese tour groups from visiting South Korea, the latest retaliation against the planned Korean deployment of the US-built Thaad missile shield, according to two people with knowledge of the plans.
  • During your early years wasthere anything that inspired or sparked your imagination to start writing theway that you have done so far?

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • 另外一件性玩具则显然属于中国皇室。
  • 北京个人租房贷款最高100万元
  • 《拉里·威尔莫夜间秀》(The Nightly Show with Larry Wilmore),Comedy Central,1月19日播出。威尔莫的主题喜剧秀将取代《科尔伯特报告》(The Colbert Report)在夜间11:30播出,这是深夜节目多样化的最新尝试。完全没有压力!

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 医疗照明中LED光源在的六大应用现况及趋势
  • Household substance abuse
  • 经济学家刘元春:明年房地产稳增长的任务会稍轻
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

一季度北京商品住宅销售面积同比增长1.3倍

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 家具企业拥抱“互联网+” 发展道路或会更宽
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 海南创新产业项目土地利用管理方式保障自贸区(港)用地
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

在1981年,全球52%的人极其穷困潦倒。这个数字在2010年的时候下降了21%,少于7.21亿人还过着极度贫困的生活。

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

喜剧类最佳男演员:杰佛里?塔博(Jeffrey Tambor),《透明家庭》(Transparent)
对于联合国已经通过的相关决议,中国一直是态度鲜明,而且是全面严格执行。中国始终是核不扩散体系的坚定维护者。
他说:“我认为在这个过程中让年轻人参与的最佳方式就是赢得比赛。”
previous
Here are our top 10expectations for China in 2014:
不过目前来看,这些潜在的乌云似乎都没有遮住特斯拉在帕洛阿尔托总部的阳光。特斯拉仍然坚持在2020年之前年产50万辆汽车的中期目标。这在很大程度上要取决于Model X是否有能力维持当前的势头。特斯拉已经大大提高了资本和研发支出,以确保Model X的顺利发布(虽然已经推迟了一年)。
在这两个新指标方面,英国商学院的表现都优于法国商学院。在职业发展方面表现最好的英国商学院——华威商学院(Warwick Business School)在这一指标的总体排名中位居第二,高于法国在这方面表现最好的巴黎高等商学院(HEC Paris) 30个名次。在毕业后首份工作薪资与当下薪资比较方面,英国商学院校友的薪资增幅更大,为62%,法国商学院校友的薪资增幅为45%。然而,英国商学院校友的平均薪资仍低于与法国商学院校友,分别为5.5万美元和6.4万美元。
4. HHhH
Musk said he expects to be producing cars at a 100,000-a-year rate by the end of 2015.
HEC Paris and London Business School have tightened their grip on the top of the Financial Times rankings of pre-experience and post-experience Masters in Finance programmes respectively, having dominated the finance rankings since they were first published in 2011.

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

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Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • 不会。默克尔可能会接受一支规模较小的欧元区投资基金,但这满足不了这位法国总统的雄心。马克龙想要的是“路线图”,指明如何实现一份相当于欧元区经济产出一定百分点的预算,由一名财政部长监督,完全用于缓冲经济震荡。默克尔想要答应,但她在联邦选举后政治地位受到削弱,因此无法勉强基本上持怀疑态度的德国民众接受这样一个决定。
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • 惊险、欢快与不安交替进行,乔纳森·格雷泽导演的非凡之处在于让色情电影难得的实现了幻想与现实的融合。
  • 雷士再起战火 吴长江控告王冬雷侵吞一亿港币
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  • 万科:对未来业务增长有信心
  • 如果上述情况都变成现实,休伯蒂估计苹果在中国智能手机市场上已跌至10%的份额将会提高三倍,达到近30%。

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 不惧港府“空置税” 二季度香港豪宅成交飙升
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • 全年城镇新增就业1314万人;
  • 开发商:Supermassive Games、Sony Computer Entertainment

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

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